Gram Negative Rods

  • E. coli

  • Klebsiella spp

  • Proteus spp

  • Pseudomonas

  • Mainly in patients already on broad-spectrum antibiotics or those who have undergone prior procedures.


  • Bacteroides spp.

  • ¬†Generally in more serious infections, or in patients with a history of biliary manipulations.

Enterococcus Species

  • Treatment not always indicated

  • Use clinical judgment.


  • ¬†Rare, mainly in immunocompromised patients or those with extensive antibiotic history.