Anaerobic spore forming gram positive bacilli, box-car shaped
Nosocomial more common than community onset diarrhea usually after taking antibiotics.
Can occur in outbreaks.
Recurrence is very common therefore previous history of C. difficile is a risk factor.
Antacids, especially proton-pump inhibitors, and chemotherapy also increase risk.
Wide range of symptoms possible.
Profuse, watery diarrhea
Pseudomembranous colitis or toxic megacolon.
In refractory cases, stool transplants have been effective.