• Children under 5 years of age (especially under 2 years of age)

  • Aboriginal Peoples

  • Asthma and other chronic pulmonary disease, including dysplasia, cystic fibrosis, chronic bronchitis and emphysema

  • Cardiovascular disease (excluding isolated hypertension; including congenital and acquired heart disease such as congestive heart failure)

  • Malignancy

  • Chronic renal insufficiency
    Diabetes mellitus and other metabolic diseases

  • Hemoglobinopathies such as sickle cell disease

  • Immunosuppression or immunodeficiency due to disease, or iatrogenic due to medication

  • Neurologic disease and neurodevelopment disorders that compromise handling of respiratory secretions (cognitive neuromuscular disorders, cerebral palsy, metabolic disorders)

  • Residents of chronic care facilities

  • Pregnant adolescents and adolescents up to 4 weeks post part regardless of how the pregnancy ended

  • < 18 years of age and on chronic aspirin therapy

  • Obesity with BMI > of a BMI > 3 z-scores above the mean for age and gender