Antibiotic resistance is a major concern when children are given chronic antibiotic prophylaxis.
All patients with high grade reflux or documented recurrent urinary tract infections should be referred to urology.
Antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended by urology or nephrology in specific clinical situations and for specific time periods.
In addition to investigating any urologic cause, diagnosis and management of bowel and bladder dysfunction remains a cornerstone of prevention.
Cephalexin 12.5 mg/kg/24h PO divided q12h up to 6 weeks of age then as a single daily dose
Nitrofurantoin 1-2 mg/kg/24h PO as a single daily dose (greater than 1 month only)
Co-trimoxazole 2 mg/kg/24h PO as a single daily dose (greater than 1 month only)
Dosing is based upon the trimethoprim component