Clostridium difficile

Precautions

Contact Precautions

General Information

Anaerobic spore forming gram positive bacilli, box-car shaped

Nosocomial > community onset diarrhea usually after taking antibiotics.

Can occur in outbreaks.

Recurrence is very common therefore previous history of C. difficile is a risk factor.

Antacids, especially proton-pump inhibitors, and chemotherapy also increase risk.

Wide range of symptoms possible, and 15% are asymptomatic

Profuse, watery diarrhea

Pseudomembranous colitis or toxic megacolon

Normal colonizer in infants

Probiotics may be helpful.

In refractory cases, stool transplants have been effective