Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Precautions

Airborne Precautions (N95)
Airborne Precautions (N95)

General Information

Pathogen information

Acid fast bacillus

Epidemiology

Highest global mortality of any infectious disease.

Pulmonary TB is exceedingly infectious by the airborne route.

Latent disease believed to affect >20% of world population (latent TB is non-infectious).

Prevalence higher in developing nations, and highly associated with HIV infection.

Diagnosis of active TB: sputum acid fast stain and culture, sputum PCR

Diagnosis of latent TB: interferon-gamma release assay

Associated syndromes

Pulmonary:

  • Cavitating pneumonia

  • Upper lobe pnuemonia

  • Occasionally miliary

Extrapulmonary:

  • Lymph node disease

  • CNS infection

  • Osteomyelitis (Potts)

  • Peritoneal

  • Others

Additional Information

Infectious Diseases consultation required for suspected active TB.

Airborne precautions for pulmonary TB urgently, on suspicion of diagnosis. Release isolation after three negative sputum smears.

Caseating granulomas on pathology.

MDR includes rifampin and isoniazid resistance.