Anaerobic spore forming Gram positive bacilli, box-car shaped.
Environmental (soil, water) organism as well as human/animal digestive tract.
Associated with penetrating wounds with environmental exposure.
Gas gangrene/Clostridial myonecrosis
Necrotizing skin and soft tissue infection
Fatal bacteremia with massive exotoxin-mediated hemolysis
Foodborne self-limited gastrointestinal illness
Surgical debridement of devitalized tissue crucial.
IVIG and hyperbaric oxygen may be considered for necrotizing fasciitis, but lack of rigorous studies to support routine use.