Anaerobic spore forming gram positive bacilli, box-car shaped
Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea usually after taking antibiotics.
Can occur in outbreaks.
Recurrence is very common therefore previous history of C. difficile is a risk factor.
Antacids, especially proton-pump inhibitors, and chemotherapy also increase risk.
Wide range of symptoms possible, and 15% are asymptomatically colonized.
Profuse, watery diarrhea
Pseudomembranous colitis or toxic megacolon
Normal colonizer in infants
Consider fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) in recurrent or refractory disease.